Philippine Political Party System

  1. Araral Jr., E. (2006). The Political Economy of Policy Reform in the Philippines: 1992–1998, The Journal of Policy Reform, 9:4, 261-274, DOI: 10.1080/13841280601101599

The authors studies the interplay of various factors that contribute to the passage of 273 reform measures from 1992 to 1998. The paper studies the role and relationship between parliamentarians, leadership, policy attributes and political rules in the passage of legislation. 

  1. Brillo, B. (2011). A Theoretical Review on Philippine Policy-making: The Weak State-Elitist Framework and the Pluralist Perspective. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, 39(1), 54-76. Retrieved July 20, 2021, from

The author evaluates the patron-client framework of Carl Lande and other frameworks that views the political party system as elitist. 

  1. Cardozo, B. (2014). A “Coming Out” Party in Congress?: LGBT Advocacy and Party-List Politics in the Philippines.

The article traces the political journey of Ladlad within the broader context of historical and anthropological same-sex discourse in the Philippines.

  1. Casiple, R. (n.d.). The Party-list Path to a Broadened Philippine Democracy. 

The author traces the origins and rationale behind the institution of the party-list system in the country and current issues surrounding its. 

  1. Castro, N. (2019). The Interface between Religion and Politics in The Philippines Based on Data from Recent Philippine Elections.

The author studies the intersection of Religion and Politics in the 2019 Midterm Elections and provides answers the role that religious factions play in politics based on historical and empirical evidence. 

  1. Center for People Empowerment in Governance (2012). The 15th Congress: A Preliminary Study. 

The paper presents a profile of the members of the 15th Congress. It classified legislators according to their terms of office, political party affiliation, legislative experience, etc. Data collected reveals the persistence of political dynasties in and dominance of business professionals in both chambers.

  1. Center for People Empowerment in Governance (Philippines). (2007). Election debacle: Disenfranchising the voters, mangling the party-list system : a reader on the Philippine elections. Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: Center for People Empowerment in Governance.

The volume is a compilation of articles analytical of the Philippine political system during the time of former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. There is an article criticizing the entrance of traditional politicians in sectoral representation. And another on the ‘mathematical absurdity’ of the party-list seat appropriation.

  1. ________ (2007). Oligarchic politics elections and the party-list system in the Philippines. CenPEG Books. 

It is a compilation of articles written by scholars from different disciplines, analyzing the state of the party-list system.

  1. ________(2008). Policy Study, P. a. A. (2008). 2007 Philippine politics in review: A compilation of CenPEG’s Issue analysis. Quezon City: Policy Study, Publication & Advocacy Program (PSPA). Center for People Empowerment in Governance (CenPEG).

A compilation of articles on various social issues during the Presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo which includes critique on party-list system existing at the time. 

  1. Choi, J. (2001). PHILIPPINE DEMOCRACIES OLD AND NEW. Elections, Term Limits, and Party SystemsAsian Survey 18 June 2001; 41 (3): 488–501. doi:

The author studies the implications of a presidential electoral system and plurality rule in the overall status of the party system of the country.

  1. Co, E. E. A. 1. (2005). Philippine democracy assessment: Free and fair elections and the democratic role of political parties. Pasig City: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.

The book examines Philippine democracy based on the function and dynamics of political parties and electoral exercise as two important indicators. 

  1. Davin, C., & Legara, E.F.(2015). How Voters Combine Candidates on the Ballot: The Case of the Philippine Senatorial Elections, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Volume 29, Issue 1, Spring 2017, Pages 70–94,

The study uses a cluster analysis in an exit poll for the 2010 Senatorial elections. The study hypothesizes that name recall will be a crucial factor in selecting leaders consequential to a weak party system, the dominance of political dynasties, low voters’ education, among other factors.

  1. Dressel, B. (2011). The Philippines: How much real democracy? International Political Science Review / Revue Internationale De Science Politique, 32(5), 529-545. Retrieved July 20, 2021, from

The author argues that democracy in the country is unstable. Dressel claims are 

based on the prevalence of elites, institutional weaknesses, abuse of power that cumulatively results in a fragile democracy.

  1. Fermin, A. (2001) Prospects and Scenarios for the Party List System in the Philippines.

The author evaluates the performance of party-lists in the legislature and provides prospects in furtherance of its function and role in politics and governance. 

  1. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (2009). Reforming the Philippine Political Party System: Ideas and initiatives, debates and dynamics.

A book resulting from collaborative work between political science thinkers, researchers, and advocates of political party reform that critically analyzed the state of the party system in the country and forwarded reform measures to address gaps, lapses, and inadequacies in enforcement and institutionalization.

  1. Garcia, M.S. (2007). Meeting the Optimists. Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, 13, 31-66.

The author examines the socio-cultural factors that compound both legal and political impediments to the representation promised by the party-list system and law. 

  1. Gonzales, D. (2011). Priorities for Philippine Political Parties: Mass Membership, Political Education, and Party Development Law. Political Parties, Party Systems and Democratization in East Asia, 2011: 243-256.

The study measures the public perception of political parties through the conduct of a survey. Through measured perceptions, the author forwards reform measures for the strengthening of the country’s party system and democracy. 

  1. Gutierrez, E. U. (1994). The ties that bind: A guide to family, business, and other interests in the Ninth House of Representatives. Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism.

A paper that evaluates the composition of the 9th Congress and found that the legislative branch is dominated by representatives that enjoy political and economic longevity in their own jurisdictions because of their land ownership, properties, and other business ventures.  

  1. Hicken, A. (2014). Party and Party System Institutionalization in the Philippines. In A. Hicken & E. Kuhonta (Eds.), Party System Institutionalization in Asia: Democracies, Autocracies, and the Shadows of the Past (pp. 307-327). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107300385.013

The author studies the origins and persistence of political parties from the framework of party institutionalization forwarded by Mainwaring and Scully.

  1. Holden, W. (2009). Ashes from the phoenix: State terrorism and the party-list groups in the Philippines. Contemporary Politics. 2009; 15: 377-393. 

The author identifies various factors that contribute to the exclusion of the left in the governance arena. He points to state terrorism as a strong impetus for left organizations to depart from if not wholly abandon the field to pursue armed warfare against the state instead.

  1. Hutchcroft, P., & Rocamora, J. (2003). Strong Demands and Weak Institutions: The Origins and Evolution of the Democratic Deficit in the Philippines. Journal of East Asian Studies, 3(2), 259-292. doi:10.1017/S1598240800001363

The authors assert that the Philippines is in a state of democratic crisis marked by an unstable democracy. The authors point to the swelling of discontent in the streets as a weakness or failure of democracy in addressing the people’s demands.

  1. Hutchcroft, P. (2014). Dreams of Redemption: Localist Strategies of Political Reform in the Philippines*. In S. Williams (Ed.), Social Difference and Constitutionalism in Pan-Asia (Comparative Constitutional Law and Policy, pp. 75-108). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139567312.006

The author forwards electoral reforms as a means to enliven politics and effect positive political outcomes. 

  1. Igarashi, S. (2008). The Dilemma of Democratic Consolidation in the Philippines: The Contested Role of Civic Organizations in Electoral Governance, Philippine Political Science Journal, 29:52, 79-116, DOI: 10.1080/01154451.2008.9723509

The author recognizes the role of socio-civic organizations such as NAMFREL, PPCRV, and NASSA, to name a few in ensuring the conduct of free and fair elections that would otherwise will not be possible under the supervision of COMELEC alone. The author argues that the work of the socio-civic organizations contributed immensely in improving electoral governance in the countries and indispensable in democracy. 

  1. Kasuya, Y. (2005). Patronage of the past and future: Legislators’ decision to impeach President Estrada of the Philippines. The Pacific Review, 18, 521 – 540.

The author studies patronage politics in motion during the impeachment of former President Estrada and. 

  1. _______. (2009). Presidential bandwagon: parties and party systems in the Philippines. Anvil Publication. 

The author asserts that the overwhelming power afforded to the president is a reason behind fluidity and transience of political parties in the country.  

  1. Kavita K., Jacques D. M. Gimeno & Edson Tandoc Jr. (2009) The Internet and Mobile Technologies in Election Campaigns: The GABRIELA Women’s Party During the 2007 Philippine Elections, Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 6:3-4, 326-339, DOI: 10.1080/19331680903047420

The authors studies the use of technology by Gabriela Women’s Party list in its 2007 electoral campaign and lauds its effort in using technology to augment its grassroots campaign strategy.

  1. Kenny, P.D. (2020). Why Is There No Political Polarization in the Philippines? – Political Polarization in South and Southeast Asia: Old Divisions, New Dangers.

The author claims that political polarization in the country is either weak or absent, thus resulting in the depreciation of political parties. 

  1. Kerkvliet, B. (1995). Toward a More Comprehensive Analysis of Philippine Politics: Beyond the Patron-Client, Factional Framework. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 26(2), 401-419. Retrieved July 21, 2021, from

The author appeals to an alternative view of Philippine politics and party system beyond the patron-client framework (pcf) forwarded by Carl Lande. 

  1. Kimura, M. (1990). Philippine peasant and labor organizations in electoral politics: players of transitional politics. Pilipinas: A Journal of Philippine Politics (Spring 1990), 29-78.
  1. Kimura, M. 2013) Toward a more workable Philippine party-list system: addressing problems of sectoral and proportional representation, Philippine Political Science Journal, 34:1, 62-82, DOI: 10.1080/01154451.2013.789164

The article studies the party-list system from 1986 until 2010 and analyzes its performance despite roadblocks. The author forwards reform measures to dismantle the oligarchs in the legislative branch and promotes safeguards for marginalized sector representation in the Lower House.

  1. Köppinger, P. (2013). ELECTIONS AND TRANSITIONS IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD (pp. 125-141, Rep.) (Wahlers G., Ed.). Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Retrieved July 20, 2021, from

The author studies the role of patronage in the rivalry of political parties and turnout of the 2013 Presidential elections. The author argues that parties are no more than machines that are without platforms and programs that serves in the furtherance of the system. 

  1. KREUZER, P. (2020). A PATRON-STRONGMAN WHO DELIVERS.: EXPLAINING ENDURING PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR PRESIDENT DUTERTE IN THE PHILIPPINES (pp. 4-18, Rep.). Peace Research Institute Frankfurt. Retrieved July 20, 2021, from

The author analyzes the dynamics of political parties in the broader context of patronage and clientelism in Philippine politics. 

  1. Lacbayo, A.P. (2017). Reforming the Philippine political party system: ideas and initiatives, debates and dynamics. Philippine Political Science Journal, 38:1, 76-78, DOI: 10.1080/01154451.2017.1320129

The author  reviews articles included in Reforming the Philippine Political Party System: Ideas and Initiatives, Debates and Dynamics published by the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES). 

  1. Lallana, E. (1989). Political Parties, Political Clans and the Prospects for Philippine Democracy. Philippine Political Science Journal, 15:29-30, 43-62, DOI: 10.1080/01154451.1989.9754150

The article discusses the origins of political parties relative to important historical and political personages. The article also discusses the intra and inter-party dynamics and their consequences to the party system.

  1. Manacsa, R. C., & Tan, A. C. (2005). Manufacturing Parties: Re-examining the Transient Nature of Philippine Political Parties. Party Politics11(6), 748–765.

The authors analyze political party formation according to the social-cleavage approach first forwarded by Lipset and Rokkan and use the same framework in exploring the transient nature of parties.

  1. Masataka K.(2013) Toward a more workable Philippine party-list system: addressing problems of sectoral and proportional representation, Philippine Political Science Journal, 34:1, 62-82, DOI: 10.1080/01154451.2013.789164
  1. The article studies the party-list system from 1986 until 2010 and analyzes its performance despite roadblocks. The author forwards reform measures to dismantle the oligarchs in the legislative branch and promotes safeguards for marginalized sector representation in the Lower House.
  1. MATTHIESSEN, S. (2019). Re-Orienting the Philippines: The KALIBAPI party and the application of Japanese Pan-Asianism, 1942–45. Modern Asian Studies, 53(2), 560-581. doi:10.1017/S0026749X17000294

The article explores the Japanese forces’ use of the KALIBAPI for its pan-Asian ambitions and identifies factors that led to its failure and the party’s demise.

  1. Mendoza, R.U., Cruz, J.F., & Yap, D.B. (2014). Political Party Switching: It’s More Fun in the Philippines. PSN: Political Parties (Topic). Asian Institute of Management (AIM) Working Paper No. 14-019 

The paper identifies voting preferences and timing as factors in party-switching.

  1. Montinola, G.R.(1999). Parties and Accountability in the Philippines. Journal of Democracy. 1999 10(10), 126-140. doi:10.1353/jod.1999.0013.

The article explores different factors contributing to the rise of personalities into positions of power since Martial Law. 

  1. ____________. (1999). Politicians, Parties, and the Persistence of Weak States: Lessons from the Philippines. Development Change 30(4), 739-774 (36). DOI:

The author forwards a principal-agent model to determine the degree to which leaders in position are willing to undergo bureaucratic reform.

  1. Muga II, F. (2014). Measuring the Compliance, Proportionality, and Broadness of a Seat Allocation Method. Center for People Empowerment in Governance. 

The study evaluates the seat allocation framework for sectoral representation. The study compares different formulas since the party-list elections in 1998. The author asserts that the 3-seat cap causes vote shaving for party lists with a high percentage share of votes.

  1. Panao, R.A. (2019). Marginal Representation: Party-list and Legislative Productivity at the House of Representatives, 1998-2016. 

The author provides data on legislative actions of party-list representatives as a measure of their productivity from 1998-2016. Findings of the briefing show that party-lists representatives are prolific legislators but they find it more difficult to pass legislative hurdles in the Lower House. 

  1. Quimpo, N. (2005) The left, elections, and the political party system in the Philippines, Critical Asian Studies, 37:1, 3-28, DOI: 10.1080/1467271052000305241

The author recognizes the role of the left in breaking the domination of traditional politicians in the governance arena but gauges that these groups have yet to make a decisive and qualitative change to the system.

  1. __________. (2007). THE PHILIPPINES: Political Parties and Corruption. Southeast Asian Affairs, 277-294. Retrieved July 16, 2021, from

The article analyzes political parties within the context of a corrupt system. According to the author, corruption engenders an ill-developed political party system, making it personality-based instead of being built upon ideologies and platforms. 

  1. Rocamora, J. (2000) ‘Formal democracy and its alternatives in the Philippines: parties, elections and social movements’;,02. 02.2007. 

The authors argue that State elitism and bureaucratism is responsible for the further marginalization of disadvantaged groups. 

  1. ___________. (2002). Philippine Political Parties , Electoral System and Political Reform.

The author forwards ways to reform the weak political party system through more specific mechanisms like proportional representation practiced in the West. Rocamora also delivers electing leaders according to their political parties to depart from personality politics.

  1. Rodan, G. (2018). THE PHILIPPINES’ PARTY-LIST SYSTEM, REFORMERS, AND OLIGARCHS. In Participation without Democracy: Containing Conflict in Southeast Asia (pp. 116-138). ITHACA; LONDON: Cornell University Press. Retrieved July 20, 2021, from

The author recognizes the party-list system as an effort to depart from the elite dominance in government after the fall of Marcos in 1986. 

  1. Rodriguez, A. M. G. (1998). Democracy Rising?: The Trials and Triumphs of the 1998 Party-list Elections. Institute of Politics and Governance and Friedrich Ebert.
  1. Santos, S.M. (2007). The Philippines Tries the Party-List System (A Progressive Perspective). Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, 13, 05-18.

The author offers a sociological perspective in understanding the introduction of the party-list system as an electoral innovation. 


The authors study how Kabataan Party-list engages the youth in policy-making and encourages youth mobilization in issues affecting the sector. 

  1. Sidel, J. (1997). Philippine politics in town, district, and province : Bossism in Cavite and Cebu. The Journal of Asian Studies, 56, 947-966.

The author studies bossism in motion in two of the major cities in the country. 

  1. Sidel, J. T. (1999). Capital, coercion, and crime: Bossism in the Philippines. Stanford University Press.

The book discusses bossism or the phenomenon where political and economic monopoly is achieved and secured by means of coercion. 

  1. Tancangco, L. (1988). The electoral system and political parties in the Philippines. Government and Politics of the Philippines, 77-112.
  1. Tangkia, F.P., & Habaradas, M.A. (2001). Party-List System: The Philippine Experience. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES).

The article discusses how the party-list system came as an innovation to the political system. It includes essential debates and discussions that led to the inception of the party-list system in the country and analyzed the issues surrounding its enforcement in 1998. Tuazon, B. (2013). 

  1. Teehankee, J.C. (2001) Emerging Dynasties in the Post Marcos House of Representatives, Philippine Political Science Journal, 22:45, 55-78, DOI: 10.1080/01154451.2001.9754225

The article profiles a new set of political clans that have emerged after Martial Law that did not necessarily come from the old economic elites that served as motive forces behind the formation of some political parties. 

  1. _________. (2010) Party.Politics.Ph: Internet Campaigning in the Philippines, Philippine Political Science Journal, 31:54, 87-116, DOI: 10.1080/01154451.2010.9723526

The article presents key findings on the content analysis of websites of political parties and party organizations in the 14th Congress. It appraises how the parties in the sample used the internet for organizational, advocacies, and electoral ends. 

  1. __________. (2012). Clientelism and party politics in the Philippines. Routledge 1st Edition eBook ISBN 9780203080689

The study looks into the institutional origins of s of clientelism at different levels and dimensions of politics and governance. It proposes an alternate view contrary to the patron-client framework theorized by Carl Lande in the 1960s. 

  1. ___________. (2016): The Philippines in 2015: the calm before the political storm, Philippine Political Science Journal To link to this article:

The author discusses critical issues that foreshadow the 2016 Presidential Elections and their implications on the legacy of outgoing President Aquino.

  1. ___________. (2020). Factional Dynamics in Philippine Party Politics, 1900-2019. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. 2020;39(1):98-123. doi:10.1177/1868103420913404

The article studies how intra-party rivalry gives rise to political party formation in the country.

  1. Teehankee, J.C., & Thompson, M.R. (2016). The Vote in the Philippines: Electing a Strongman. Journal of Democracy 27(4), 125-134. doi:10.1353/jod.2016.0068.

The article lends insight to the implications of a strongman in position and its consequences on liberal democracy.

  1. Teehankee JC, Kasuya Y. (2019). The 2019 midterm elections in the Philippines: Party system pathologies and Duterte’s populist mobilization. Asian Journal of Comparative Politics. 2020;5(1):69-81. doi:10.1177/2057891119896425

The article is a close study of the 2019 Midterm Elections. It forwarded the populist mobilization phenomenon that eclipsed the traditional patronage-based political party characteristic of electoral competition in the country. 

  1. ____________. (2020). Duterte Presidency and the 2019 Midterm Election: Anarchy of Parties? Philippine Political Science Journal. 2020; 41(1-2): 106-125. Doi: 10.1163/2165025X-BJA10007

The authors observe an ‘anarchy of parties,’ where candidates cross or switch party affiliations to ride on the popularity bandwagon of President Duterte, making the party system ever more volatile and transient. 

  1. Tuazon, B.M. (2011). Twelve Years of the Party List System. Adfo Books 

The article presents a longitudinal study of the party-list system and highlights marginalized representation issues in the Lower House.

  1. Torres-Pilapil, C. (2015). The Origins of the Party-List Electoral System in the 1986 Constitutional Commission. Social Science Diliman, 11.

The study traces the origins and essence of the party-list electoral system through a review of the proceedings of the Constitutional Commission. The author seeks to lend explanation on debates on proportional representation that has been in effect since its institutionalization. 

  1. Valencia, M.M. (2011). A Methodological Explanation of the Philippine Proportional Representation System Party List Election results from 1998 to 2007 using Counter Duvergerian Psychological Effect Theory Framed in the Context of Historical Institutionalism.

The study examines the proportional framework of sectoral representation based on the results of the 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2007 Midterm elections using the Counter Duvergerian Psychological Effect framework within the context of historical institutionalism. 

  1. Velasco, D. (2007). Marginalized Groups and Political Participation: Perspectives from the Philippines. Development, 50, 117-121.

The article probes into the political participation of marginalized groups and the prospects of their inclusion in the Philippine political system. The author examines the political participation of marginalized groups and the process of politization. 

  1. Weissenbach, K. (2011). Political Parties and Party Types-Conceptual Approaches to the Institutionalization of Political Parties in Transitional States : The Case of the Philippines.

The author studies the political party system dynamics in the conduct of the May 2010 elections in the Philippines and forwards reforms for political parties in a democratic society. 

  1. Wurfel, D. (1998). The Party-List Election: Sectoral Failure or National Success? Political Brief, 6(2), 1-5. 

The author appraises the very first party-list election in the country and identifies legal and political hurdles that prohibit the realization of social justice and the spirit of representation provided by the law.

On Political Dynasties and Oligarchy 

  1. Benedict, A. (1988). Cacique Democracy and the Philippines: Origins and Dreams. New Left Review169, 3-33

The argues how the Philippine State is forged under the influence and power of the landed elites. 

  1. Karaos, A. (2007). The Viability of Social Democracy as a Political Ideology in the Philippines. Kasarinlan: Philippine Journal of Third World Studies, 2, 17-22.

The author explores the factors that would make social democracy a dominant political ideology in the Philippines. 

  1. Kimura, M. (1989). The Revolution and Realignment of Political Parties in the Philippines(December 1985-January 1988): With a Case in the Province of Batangas. Southeast Asian Studies, 27, 352-379.

The author studies how the political party system was changed with the 1986 People Power uprising with focus on the Batangas experience. 

  1. Kimura, M. (1998). Changing Patterns of Leadership Recruitment and the Emergence of the Professional Politician in Philippine Local Politics Re-examined : An Aspect of Political Development and Decay.

The author lends a historical analysis to the Philippine political system and identifies the enduring characteristic of prewar families despite their lack of political education and experience. The paper also explains different interacting factors that result in this trend and discusses its implications.

  1. Lotesta, J., & De Leon, C. (2020). Political Parties: From Reflection to Articulation and Beyond. In T. Janoski, C. De Leon, J. Misra, & I. William Martin (Eds.), The New Handbook of Political Sociology (pp. 646-665). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108147828.025

The authors study the political party system from the articulation framework and interaction of social components that determine or help form social identities.  

  1. McCoy, A. W. (Ed.). (2009). An anarchy of families: State and family in the Philippines. Univ of Wisconsin Press.

The author argues how oligarchy is both an impetus and consequence of a weak democratic state.

  1. Mendoza, R.U., Beja, E.L., Venida, V.S., & Yap, D. (2012). Inequality in democracy: Insights from an empirical analysis of political dynasties in the 15th Philippine Congress. Philippine Political Science Journal, 33, 132 – 145.

The authors studied the profile of legislators in the 15th Congress and find that 70% of the total district representation comes from dynasties. The authors also correlated how socio-economic conditions give rise to political dynasties. Mendoza, R.U., Beja, E.L., Venida, V.S., & Yap, D. (2018). 

  1. ________. (2016) Political dynasties and poverty: measurement and evidence of linkages in the Philippines, Oxford Development Studies, 44:2, 189-201, DOI: 10.1080/13600818.2016.1169264

The paper provides empirical evidence to the relationship of political dynasties and poverty in the Philippines. 

  1. Nowak, T., & Snyder, K. (1974). Clientelist Politics in the Philippines: Integration or Instability? American Political Science Review, 68(3), 1147-1170. doi:10.2307/1959153

Authors argues the existence of a contradiction between local elites and the weakening of their political power owing to the rise of middle class in office that follows national patronage and centralized resources. 

  1. Querubín, P. (2012). Political Reform and Elite Persistence: Term Limits and Political Dynasties in the Philippines.

The author studies the potential impact of political reforms in dismantling elite domination in politics by analyzing the persistence of political dynasties in the Philippines. 

  1. Ramón, J., Albert, G., Mendoza, R.U., Barua, D., & Fredrick, J. (2015). Regulating political dynasties toward a more inclusive society. Philippine Institution for Development Studies. 

A policy note that forwards the regulation of political parties inspired by international practices and experience. 

  1. Reyes, J., Arce, B.G., & Madrid, N.B. (2019). Do Money, Power, Family and Connections Really Matter in Politics? Analysing Factors of Success in the 2010, 2013 and 2016 Philippine Senatorial Elections. The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, 36, 28-51.

The authors study the interplay of various factors such as campaign spending, incumbency, party affiliation, dynasties in the function of democracy in the country by analyzing the conduct and outcomes of 2010, 2013 and 2016 Senatorial elections. 

  1. Roces, M. (2000). Kinship Politics in Post-War Philippines: The Lopez Family, 1945–1989. Modern Asian Studies, 34(1), 181-221. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00003668

The author argues that the end of Martial Law did not necessarily mean end the persistence of graft and corruption, the people in power post the uprising is similarly guilty of the corrupt practices albeit to a lesser degree than the Marcoses. 

  1. Sidel, J. T. (1999). Capital, coercion, and crime: Bossism in the Philippines. Stanford University Press.

The book discusses bossism or the phenomenon where political and economic monopoly is achieved and secured by means of coercion. 

  1. Tadem, T. S. E., & Tadem, E. C. (2016). Political dynasties in the Philippines: Persistent patterns, perennial problems. South East Asia Research, 24(3), 328–340.

The study reveals that 74% of all elected members in the House of Representatives in the 2013 Midterm elections came from political dynasties. The authors study this phenomenon from a close examination of three factors—1) the political and socio-economic foundations, 2) the weak enforcement of laws, and 3) weak countervailing forces that would negate the dominance of political parties.

  1. Teehankee, J.C. (2001) Emerging Dynasties in the Post Marcos House of Representatives, Philippine Political Science Journal, 22:45, 55-78, DOI: 10.1080/01154451.2001.9754225

The article profiles a new set of political clans that have emerged after Martial Law that did not necessarily come from the old economic elites that served as motive forces behind the formation of some political parties. 

Political Reforms in the Philippines 

  1. Ramos, C.G. (2020), Change without Transformation: Social Policy Reforms in the Philippines under Duterte. Development and Change, 51: 485-505.

The author analyzes the reform measures legislated and the policies enforced during the first three years of President Duterte’s administration. 

  1. Teehankee, J.C. (2019). Institutionalizing Political Party Reforms in the Philippines. In R. Mendoza (Ed). Building Inclusive Democracies in ASEAN (pp 322-332). World Scientific.

The author studies the feasibility of political reforms from a historical vantage point. 

  1. YU, S. (2005). Political Reforms in the Philippines: Challenges Ahead. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 27(2), 217-235. Retrieved July 26, 2021, from

The author argues that democracy in the country is yet to mature even though democracy has been rehabilitated at the fall of the Marcos regime. 

Comparative Studies of Political Party Systems 

  1. Arlegue, C., & Coronel, J. J. (2003). Philippines. P. Manikas & L. Thornton (Eds). Political Parties in Asia Promoting Reform and Combating Corruption in Eight Countries. National Democratic Institution for International Affairs (NDI). 
  1. Aspinall, E. & Hicken, A. (2020). Guns for hire and enduring machines: clientelism beyond parties in Indonesia and the Philippines, Democratization, 27:1, 137-156, DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2019.1590816

Author analyzes the variance of clientelism in Philippines and Indonesia where the former is marked by long-term patronage relations while the latter is short-term transactional in character. 

  1. Berenschot, W. (2015). Political Parties and Clientelism in Southeast Asia.

The author studies how clientelism and other forms of patronage politics exist across different countries in Southeast Asia and their historical and institutional origins. 

  1. Bourdreau, V. (2009). Elections, repression and authoritarian survival in post-transition Indonesia and the Philippines, The Pacific Review, 22:2, 233-253, DOI: 10.1080/09512740902815359

The article compares and contrasts how authoritarian parties persist in the transitional periods of democratization in Philippines and Indonesia. Findings reveal that Philippine elites succeeded in gaining a major role in the electoral and policy-making processes while in Indonesia, repressive policies are maintained to suppress mobilization. 

  1. Brownlee, J. (2008). Bound to Rule: Party Institutions and Regime Trajectories in Malaysia and the Philippines. Journal of East Asian Studies, 8(1), 89-118. doi:10.1017/S1598240800005105

The paper studies the similarities between the political party system in Malaysia and the Philippines in the late 1970s to early 1980s and analyzed the impact of party deflection of leaders to the strength of their respective parties and the political party system in general. 

  1. Buehler, M., & Nataatmadja, R. (2020). Authoritarian diasporas in Indonesia and the Philippines: comparative perspectives on elite survival and defection. Democratization, 28, 521 – 538.

The authors study and compare the rise and fall of authoritarian regimes in Indonesia (1998) and the Philippines (1986) and the factors that led to their demise. 

  1. Croissant, A., & Völkel, P. (2012). Party system types and party system institutionalization: Comparing new democracies in East and Southeast Asia. Party Politics, 18(2), 235–265.

The article examines the varying degrees of party institutionalization in different democracies in East and Southeast Asia. The author uses Alan Siaroff’s typology of party systems and reveals a dispersion of party systems of the countries in the sample. 

  1. Dong‐Yoon Lee & Sang Hwa Chung (2004) Democratic consolidation and electoral reform in Southeast Asia: Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia, Global Economic Review, 33:4, 51-73, DOI: 10.1080/12265080408449862

The authors studies the relationship of electoral system and democracy in a comparative analysis of the transformation process of the electoral systems of the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia. Findings show that all three countries have adopted a competitive electoral system but Thailand and Indonesia prohibits the participation of non-partisan candidates. 

  1. He, B. (2014). Introduction to: Political Parties and Democracy: Part II: Asian Parties.

The chapter offers a comparative study third-wave democracies in Asia. 

  1. Hicken, A. (2006) ‘Stuck in the mud: parties and party systems in democratic Southeast Asia’, Taiwan Journal of Democracy 2(2): 23–46. 

The paper describes the characteristics of the parties and party systems in South East Asia and to what degree party systems are institutionalized in the countries of Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. 

  1. ________. (2009). Term Limits, Aggregation Incentives, and the Number of Parties in the Philippines. In Building Party Systems in Developing Democracies (pp. 149-179). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511575563.007

A comparative study of the political system of Thailand and Philippines. The author lends explanation to the surge of political party participation on post Martial Law democracy that have puzzled and divided scholars. 

  1. Hutchcroft, P. (2014). Linking Capital and Countryside: Patronage and Clientelism in Japan, Thailand, and the Philippines.

The author evaluates how patronage works in a comparative study of three political systems. The paper recognizes the role of national political parties in facilitating patronage politics. 

  1. Hutchison, J. (2007). The ‘Disallowed’ Political Participation of Manila’s Urban Poor. Democratization, 14, 853 – 872.

The author explains the societal and institutional prohibits against the urban poor under neoliberal conditions despite the ‘re-democratization’ of the country and increased political participation both parliamentary and extra-parliamentary. 

  1. O’Neill, D. (2018). Comparative Political Systems: Family Dynasties in the Philippines and Cambodia. In Dividing ASEAN and Conquering the South China Sea: China’s Financial Power Projection (pp. 93-111). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv80cbrn.11

In this chapter the author lends a comparative approach in the study of dynasties in Philippines and Cambodia and its effect to their respective political party systems. 

  1. Reilly, B. (2006). Political Engineering and Party Politics in Conflict-Prone Societies. Democratization, 13, 811 – 827.

The author provides insight on ‘party engineering’ to address a diverse electoral demographic in new democracies. 

  1. Tomsa, D & Ufen, A. (2013).  Party Politics in Southeast Asia. Routledge 

The book is a comparative study of competitive electoral democracies of Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines. It is focused on the dynamics of party politics including their respective organization nuances, mobilization capacity and how they dispose their function as intermediary linkages. 

  1. Ufen, Andreas (2008): Political party and party system institutionalization in Southeast Asia. Lessons for democratic consolidation in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand, in: The Pacific Review., 21/3, 327-350. 

A comparative analysis of governance systems in Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand to determine the possible correlation of party and party system institutionalization and consolidation of democracy and variables confounding the relationship. 

  1. ________. (2012). Party Systems, Critical Junctures, and Cleavages in Southeast Asia. Asian Survey, 52(3), 441-464. doi:10.1525/as.2012.52.3.441

The article compares and contrasts the political party system and politics and governance in general in Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia, taking into account historical institutionalism. Author finds that clientelism undermine democratization relative to party systems based on cleavages where the political sphere is often polarized. 

  1. Van Den Muijzenberg, O. (1973). Political Mobilization and Violence in Central Luzon (Philippines). Modern Asian Studies, 7(4), 691-705. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00013482

The author looked into the reaction of the militant peasant left in the exclusionist policy and attitude in the local elites in government that led to the establishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines and the People’s Liberation Army that endures until today. 

  1. Weissenbach, K. (2010). Political parties and party types—Conceptual approaches to the institutionalization of political parties in transitional states: The case of the Philippines. 

Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V

The study analyzed the status of political parties in the Philippines which the author characterized as a democracy in transition. The study further forwards different criteria for establishing fully functional political parties.