Duterte, Marcos and Our Secret Longing for Dictatorship

fm martial law introPhoto from gov.ph

Throughout history, there have been many justifications for authoritarian rule.

The oldest recorded work of political philosophy, Plato’s The Republic, is also the oldest recorded argument for authoritarian leadership. There, Plato argued that people are born with different defining characteristics, and nature has endowed some people with the potential for leadership. Society, in nurturing and organizing people based on their abilities, will crown one among the elite class of “guardians,” a philosopher-king: a person who will have political authority based on knowledge and wisdom.

Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince, the first modern work of political science, also justified absolute authority conferred to an individual. Postulating that the end of politics is to maintain power and that in the practice of statecraft, the end justifies the means, meaning certain acts which may be deemed immoral are to be held permissible when done by the nation’s political leader.

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EDSA 1986 and our VP wannabes

edsa 30 govPhoto from gov.ph

Thirty years on we look at the EDSA Revolution with more ambivalence than ever before.

But concerns aside, 2016 and 1986 are the same in one important respect: we are at a moment in history where we need to choose who will lead our country in the next six years.

Five vie for the highest position in the land; six vie for the second-highest. Interestingly, some of these candidates who are eyeing the top posts in the land were relatively young when the Marcos regime was ousted through a peaceful People Power. What were these candidates doing in February 1986? Did it affect them in significant ways? Let’s take a look.

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Kung bakit mas madaling magka-soulmate kaysa masali sa isang survey

Nalalapit na naman ang panahon ng eleksyon sa ating bansa. At kasabay ng paglabas ng iba’t ibang partidong pulitikal na nag-aalok sa ating mga botante ng kani-kanilang mga kandidato at plataporma ay ang pagsasagawa ng mga survey tungkol sa mga kandidatong ating pinapaboran para sa iba’t ibang mga posisyon sa pamahalaan.

Kaakibat ng mga naglalabasang mga resulta ng mga survey ay sari-saring mga katanungan tungkol sa paggawa nito, ang proseso ng pagbuo ng mga tanong na isinasama sa survey questionnaire, ang paraan ng pagpili sa mga respondents na sumasagot nito, ang kredibilidad ng mga resulta, at iba pa.

Ito ang mga katanungang susubukan nating tugunan sa artikulong ito.

Ang bawat survey ay nagsisimula sa pagbuo ng questionnaire. Ito ang dokumento na naglalaman ng mga katanungan na siyang pinapasagutan sa mga respondents. Ang questionnaire ay kadalasang isinusulat sa wikang Filipino ngunit kung ang survey ay isasagawa sa isang lugar kung saan hindi Filipino ang pangunahing wika ng mga tao, ang questionnaire ay isasalin sa nararapat na wika (e.g., Bikolano, Cebuano, Ilokano, o Ilonggo). Ang bawat katanungan ay isinasalin din sa wikang Ingles.

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